MENANGANI KEMELUT EKONOMI DAN MEMULIH KEYAKINAN

Posted on 29 October 2008. Filed under: Finance | Tags: , , , , |

SARANAN PAKATAN RAKYAT

UNTUK BELANJAWAN 2009

23 OKTOBER 2008

PENDAHULUAN.. 3

SENARIO EKONOMI GLOBAL, CABARAN KEPADA MALAYSIA.. 4

KEGAGALAN KERAJAAN BN DALAM MEMBERI REAKSI AWAL TERHADAP KRISIS PASARAN   5

CADANGAN PERUNTUKAN BELANJAWAN PAKATAN RAKYAT.. 6

Pendidikan – Melabur dalam modal insan.. 7

Inisiatif Strategik Pengangkutan Awam.. 8

Menyokong Pemilikan Perumahan.. 9

SUMBER PENDAPATAN BARU DAN MASA DEPAN.. 10

SARANAN UTAMA BELANJAWAN PAKATAN RAKYAT.. 10

LANGKAH UNTUK MEMASTIKAN KESTABILAN PASARAN KEWANGAN. 11

MENYEDIAKAN JARING KESELAMATAN SOSIAL.. 12

Meningkatkan Perbelanjaan Dalam Negara dengan Mengawal Inflasi 12

Dasar Persaingan Kebangsaan.. 13

TADBIR URUS, KETELUSAN DAN AKAUNTABILITI. 14

Mengawal perbelanjaan kerajaan dalam projek mega: 15

Mereformasi sistem tender awam.. 15

Merundingkan semula kontrak yang tidak adil. 16

KESIMPULAN.. 17

LAMPIRAN.. 19

Jadual A1. Kedudukan Kewangan Kerajaan Pusat 2005 – 2009. 19

Jadual B1 Perbelanjaan Kerajaan Persekutuan 2005-2009. 20

Jadual C3 Perbelanjaan Operasi Kerajaan Persekutuan 2005-2009. 21

Jadual D4 Perbelanjaan Pembangunan Kerajaan Persekutuan berasasaskan Sektor 2005-2009  22

PENDAHULUAN

Pakatan Rakyat dengan penuh rasa tanggungjawab ingin mengemukakan beberapa cadangan kepada Dewan Rakyat ketika ahli Parlimen masih meneruskan perbahasan Belanjawan 2009 yang telah dibentangkan pada 29 Ogos tahun ini. Saranan kami dikemukakan berdasarkan realiti terkini krisis ekonomi dan kewangan global, kejatuhan teruk pasaran komoditi serta kesan beberapa faktor lainnya terhadap Malaysia.

Kepincangan Belanjawan 2009 tampak jelas, bukan sahaja pada jangkaannya tetapi juga preskripsi untuk mengemudi negara bagi mengharungi badai kemelesetan ekonomi global yang dijangka berpanjangan pada 2008 dan 2009. Kepimpinan negara seolah-olah tidak mempunyai arah tuju dan seperti tidak menyedari kemunculan cabaran dalam bentuk inflasi, peningkatan pengangguran dan penguncupan kemasukan dana asing. Yang lebih menakutkan adalah sikap tidak mahu mengakui (state of denial) ramalan kemuraman ekonomi. Kebanyakan negara maju, yang selama ini menjadi rakan dagang penting ekonomi Malaysia, sedang bersiap sedia bagi menghadapi kemungkinan berlakunya kemelesetan ekonomi terburuk semenjak dari setengah abad yang lalu. Namun para pemimpin kita masih belum atau tidak langsung membuat sebarang kenyataan atau merangka polisi yang menunjukkan pemahaman mereka terhadap realiti ini.

There is a pressing need for a meaningful exchange of ideas by lawmakers on both sides of the political divide to formulate a more credible budget and a more responsible plan to allocate and spend the money that has been entrusted upon the government by its rightful stewards, the people of Malaysia.

Terdapat keperluan mendesak bagi Ahli Dewan dari kedua-dua belah pihak untuk bertukar-tukar fikiran bagi merangka belanjawan yang lebih dipercayai serta rancangan yang lebih bertanggungjawab untuk mengurus dan membelanjakan perbendaharaan negara.

Parti pemerintah setakat ini telah membuktikan bahawa mereka tidak mampu mendepani dialog sebegini. Pandangan yang dibentangkan oleh Pakatan Rakyat tidak dibahaskan dengan baik kerana kebanyakan Ahli Dewan Rakyat BN dan para Menterinya tidak menghadirkan diri di Dewan Rakyat. Ini mencerminkan sikap sombong dan ketidakprihatinan terhadap penderitaan rakyat yang hidup menderita akibat kesan dari situasi ekonomi yang tidak menentu.

Kami percaya kepada proses demokrasi dan berpegang teguh dengan janji kami kepada rakyat Malaysia. Kami mewakili kepentingan mereka dan akan berjuang bersungguh-sungguh untuk menentang korupsi dan kronisme yang telah menjadi sebab utama kepada ketidaktentuan ekonomi negara ini. Kami akan melaksanakan tugas kami bagi mendesak kerajaan supaya bertanggungjawab dalam hal ini demi memastikan sumbangan para pembayar cukai dan kekayaan hasil semulajadi negara ini dapat dimanfaatkan sebaiknya untuk rakyat dan masa depan negara ini.

SENARIO EKONOMI GLOBAL, CABARAN KEPADA MALAYSIA

1.       Ekonomi global kini berdepan ancaman kemelesetan berterusan dan berpanjangan. Terdapat tanda-tanda kegagalan sistem dalam kedua-dua pasaran kewangan serta ekonomi secara keseluruhannya apabila permintaan terhadap bahan asas dan barangan siap semakin menguncup seluruh dunia. Para cendekiawan percaya bahawa walaupun pasaran kewangan mungkin akan meningkat semula dalam masa terdekat, kesannya terhadap pembangunan ekonomi secara keseluruhannya akan berterusan.

  1. Dalam ekonomi global, tidak dapat tidak kesan daripada krisis akan dirasakan seluruh dunia dan di dalam ekonomi berorientasikan eksport seperti Malaysia negara ini perlu melakukan persediaan bagi menghadapi cabaran mendatang.

  1. Kini dalam suku terakhir tahun 2008 data yang ada seakan membuktikan apa yang telah dijangka pada awal tahun ini. Analisis mutakhir Malaysian Institute Economic Research menjangkakan pembangunan akan merencat ke 3.4% pada 2009 dan kemungkinan kemelesetan sebenar berlaku tahun depan perlu difikirkan secara serius. Ini mengesahkan jangkaan para pakar ekonomi antarabangsa dan juga di rantau ini ramalan kerajaan bahawa pertumbuhan negara sebanyak 5.4% boleh dikatakan terlalu optimistik.

  1. Sepanjang penguncupan ekonomi yang telah berlaku pada bulan September dan Oktober, kerajaan hari ini telah secara berterusan menafikan Malaysia akan terkesan walaupun kita sedang menghadapi inflasi tertinggi dalam masa dua dekad akibat kegagalan kerajaan menguruskan subsidi petroleum. Turut membimbangkan adalah aliran pengangguran dan Indeks Komposit BSKL yang menjunam di bawah aras 900 mata.

  1. Kenyataan oleh pihak kerajaan menunjukkan penafian berterusan terhadap realiti dan ini akan mencetuskan rasa selamat yang palsu di kalangan rakyat yang sepatutnya kini mengambil langkah sewajarnya bagi mendepani kesukaran mendatang. Strategi begini akhirnya akan memakan diri, dan menyebabkan negara ini dan kebanyakan dari rakyatnya dalam keadaan menderita.

  1. Belanjawan 2009 yang dicadangkan oleh kerajaan adalah tidak realistik dalam jangkaan pendapatan keseluruhan apabila harga komoditi telah jatuh secara dramatik. Paras perbelanjaan defisit akan semakin bertambah walaupun kami percaya kelompok sasaran untuk perbelanjaan tidak akan memberikan rangsangan secukupnya terhadap ekonomi dalam menghadapi kemungkinan kemelesetan.

7.      Tambahan pula pakar secara meluas telah mengkritik bajet ini yang dikatakan walaupun tidak menghukum perniagaan, tetapi pada masa yang sama tidak akan melakukan apa-apa untuk menggalakkan perniagaan. Rancangan ini tidak mempunyai inisiatif berkesan bagi menggalakkan perniagaan kecil mahupun besar, serta tidak mengandungi gagasan besar bagi memperbaiki daya saing Malaysia dalam menghadapi penguncupan ekonomi.

KEGAGALAN KERAJAAN BN DALAM MEMBERI REAKSI AWAL TERHADAP KRISIS PASARAN

  1. Kerajaan Malaysia berterusan menafikan bahawa negara akan terjejas teruk berikutan kemerosotan pasaran bermula sejak bulan September lalu. Para menteri sering menegaskan kepada umum bahawa asas ekonomi negara kita kukuh dan mampu untuk berhadapan dengan krisis kewangan global terkini. Ironinya hanya Malaysia yang percaya ianya kebal daripada kesan krisis tersebut. Mutakhir ini menteri kewangan mengakui hakikat bahawa Malaysia akan terkesan dari kemelesetan global dan telah menyatakan unjuran KDNK akan diturunkan. Kendatipun begitu beliau mengulangi kenyataan bahawa asas ekonomi masih kukuh dan tidak mungkin negara akan mengalami kemelesetan.

  1. Kegagalan menteri kewangan memahami bahaya situasi ini dapat dilihat dari kemiskinan inisiatif untuk menyemak semula Belanjawan 2009 sebagai reaksi kepada realiti baru pasaran. Apa yang membimbangkan ialah keyakinan beliau bahawa negara ini mampu menanggung peningkatan belanja pengurusan yang besar meskipun pendapatan negara dijangka berkurang.

  1. Kegagalan menanggapi bahaya krisis kewangan global yang akan dihadapi rakyat Malaysia pada tahun 2009 dicerminkan melalui dasar-dasar yang tidak logik, haru-biru dan tidak menentu.

Cadangan menteri kewangan untuk menyuntik RM5 Billion kepada Valuecap Sdn. Bhd. tidak membawa sebarang makna selain memangkin segelintir syarikat sahaja dalam pasaran saham, mengulangi bentuk salah guna kuasa dan salah agih dana awam yang berlaku pada tahun 1997. Suntikan 1% ekuiti ke dalam Bursa Malaysia tidak akan memberi sebarang kesan baik kepada pasaran saham. Penggunaan dana Kumpulan Wang Simpanan Pekerja untuk sebuah syarikat pelaburan persendirian yang kabur hanyalah satu cara untuk mengambil wang rakyat Malaysia bagi menyelamatkan kepentingan minoriti terpilih. Sehingga kini tiada jaminan Kementerian Kewangan berhubung pinjaman KWSP ini dan kadar pulangannya sekurang-kurangnya menyamai dividen KWSP sebanyak 5.8%.

  1. Pengumuman Menteri Kewangan untuk memulihkan persekitaran pelaburan amat kabur. Sebarang program pemulihan persekitaran pelaburan hanya boleh dicapai dengan mengambil langkah positif untuk meyakinkan pelabur luar dengan memastikan polisi berkaitan hak pemilikan ekuiti pelabur, perlaksanaan kontrak, kebebasan kehakiman dan profesionalisme sistem pendakwaan dan penguatkuasaan undang-undang. Langkah yang bercelaru tidak akan mampu untuk menghalang aliran keluar pelaburan dari Malaysia yang sudah pun mencecah angka RM125 billion pada tahun 2008.

CADANGAN PERUNTUKAN BELANJAWAN PAKATAN RAKYAT

13.  Untuk tahun 2009, Pakatan Rakyat menjangkakan pengurangan dalam pendapatan kerajaan sebanyak 11% kepada lebih kurang RM157 bilion berbanding anggaran BN sebanyak RM176 bilion, yang berpunca daripada kejatuhan harga komoditi dan kemerosotan KDNK akibat kemelesetan global.

  1. Dalam membuat anggaran pendapatan untuk tahun 2009, kami berdasarkan harga komoditi utama:

a)         harga minyak mentah (tapis blend)              USD80/barrel

b)         harga sawit mentah                                          RM1,700/ton

15.   Untuk memastikan tanggungjawab fiskal, kami mencadangkan pengurangan 15.5% dalam perbelanjaan mengurus daripada cadangan BN sebanyak RM154 bilion kepada RM129 bilion. Peningkatan 20% dalam perbelanjaan kerajaan seperti yang dicadangkan BN adalah tidak mapan memandangkan kemerosotan pendapatan dan tidak mencerminkan sikap berjimat-cermat ketika negara berhadapan dengan kesukaran ekonomi. Peningkatan mengejut dalam belanjawan kerajaan adalah tanda-tanda pembaziran dan ketidakcekapan. Kita tidak akan mengurangkan gaji. Kita juga menjangkakan penjimatan besar sekitar RM10 bilion dengan mengurangkan rasuah dan melaksanakan tender terbuka untuk perolehan kerajaan.

16.  Malaysia telah melaksanakan belanjawan defisit selama 11 tahun berturut-turut di bawah pemerintahan Barisan Nasional. Trend ini akan berterusan pada tahun 2009 untuk mengekalkan aktiviti ekonomi ketika era penguncupan ekonomi walaupun Pakatan Rakyat percaya bahawa belanjawaan itu boleh diseimbangkan pada masa terdekat. Kami menjangkakan defisit belanjawan akan menghampiri 3.0%.

17.   Walaupun kami akan mengurangkan jumlah perbelanjaan kerajaan untuk memastikan defisit belanjawan berada dalam lingkungan yang dapat diterima kami masih mencadangkan belanjawan rangsangan dan akan memperuntukkan perbelanjaan daripada peruntukan operasi kerajaan kepada projek pembangunan, yang kami percaya memiliki kesan berganda yang tertinggi dalam keseluruhan ekonomi.

18.  Pengurangan dan peruntukan semula dalam perbelanjaan akan diperkenalkan:

Perbelanjaan Mengurus:

Perbekalan dan perkhidmatan dikurangkan daripada RM26.5 bilion kepada RM18 bilion dengan menghapuskan pembaziran tanpa menjejaskan usaha menyokong perbekalan produk tempatan. Pengurangan ini adalah konsisten dengan kadar peruntukan pada tahun 2005.

19.  Kami telah memilih pendidikan, pengangkutan awam dan perumahan sebagai sektor yang akan memperlihan peningkatan besar dalam perbelanjaan pembangunan kerana kami percaya ia mampu memberikan pulangan dengan cepat dengan lebih banyak kesan berganda dalam usaha memperkuatkan ekonomi pada tahun 2009.

20. Kami juga akan mempercepatkan bayaran kerajaan kepada kontraktor untuk mengurangkan masalah aliran tunai mereka. Pengurangan masa pusing balik akan mempercepatkan pengedaran wang tunai.

Pendidikan – Melabur dalam modal insan

21.  Kami mencadangkan peningkatan besar dalam peruntukan untuk pendidikan daripada RM8.4 bilion pada tahun 2008 kepada RM11.86 bilion pada tahun 2009. Peningkatan ini hampir RM2 bilion lebih banyak daripada yang dicadangkan Barisan Nasional.

22. Pakatan Rakyat akan memperuntukkan sebahagian daripada belanjawan untuk pendidikan bagi memastikan semua sekolah rendah dilengkapkan dengan kemudahan elektrik dan air bersih. Setakat tahun 2006, 10.1% atau 767 sekolah rendah dan 1.4% atau 28 sekolah menengah tidak memiliki bekalan elektrik yang konsisten. Sementara 20% sekolah rendah atau 1,517 dan 3.4% atau 68 buah sekolah menengah tidak mempunyai bekalan air bersih. Peruntukan ini akan membantu banyak sekolah di Sabah dan Sarawak.

23. Selain itu, guru-guru akan diberikan peningkatan gaji purata 20 peratus bagi menarik kalangan yang terbaik untuk menyertai bidang perguruan. Langkah ini akan mengatasi masalah kekurangan guru dan meningkatkan kualiti guru-guru yang mempunyai tanggungjawab besar mendidik anak-anak muda. Peningkatan skala gaji ini dijangka melibatkan kos sebanyak RM200 juta bagi 330,000 guru sekolah rendah dan menengah.

24. Peruntukan khas sebanyak RM10 juta juga akan diberikan bagi menyelesaikan masalah buta huruf yang dihadapi 115,000 atau 7.7 peratus pelajar sekolah rendah.

25.  Kami percaya pelaburan yang lebih tinggi untuk R&D tempatan akan merangsang ekonomi, mewujudkan peluang pekerjaan dan menghasilkan kumpulan profesional dengan kemahiran yang diperlukan untuk berkhidmat di pasaran tempatan dan global. Perbelanjaan R&D ini perlu dihubungkan dengan sistem universiti tempatan bagi meningkatkan kualiti penyelidikan dalam sistem universiti dan membina kemampuan tempatan dalam inovasi dan keusahawanan.

26. Institusi pendidikan menengah dan rendah akan diperbaiki dengan berbelanja untuk pengajar yang lebih berkelayakan, kemudahan penyelidikan dan pembangunan yang lebih baik, dan peruntukan untuk menggalakkan penyelidikan dalam bidang pertumbuhan utama ekonomi termasuk teknologi, pertanian dan penghasilan tenaga bersih.

Inisiatif Strategik Pengangkutan Awam

27.  Pakatan Rakyat menganggap infrastruktur pengangkutan awam merupakan kepentingan untuk pelaburan serta suatu penambahbaikan utama dalam meningkatkan kualiti hidup di bandaraya-bandaraya dan kecekapan zon ekonomi utama. PR akan meningkatkan kualiti infrastruktur pengangkutan negara dengan mengoptimumkan perbelanjaan pembangunan sektor berkenaan dan menjimatkan kos dengan mempastikan tender terbuka bagi kesemua projek infrastruktur.

  1. Kesesakan lalulintas telah menjadi masalah utama di kawasan bandar yang sesak – Lembah Klang, Pulau Pinang dan Johor Bahru. Satu pelan dasar bagi jaringan landasan “Lingkaran Lembah Klang” akan turut dibangunkan bagi memperbaiki jaringan antara bandar kecil, melepasi kesesakan pusat bandaraya Kuala Lumpur. Kita percaya Lingkaran Tengah Luar Pulau Pinang adalah projek penting untuk mengurangkan kesesakan lalulintas dan merangsang ekonomi Pulau Pinang.
  2. Kami mencadangkan peningkatan besar dalam pembiayaan untuk bas antara bandar di Kuala Lumpur, Johor, Pulau Pinang, Kota Kinabalu dan Kuching sebagai satu langkah penting dalam menjawab masalah kemiskinan / ketidakwujudan perkhidmatan landasan dan kesesakan trafik.

  1. PR juga mendokong polisi untuk memperkukuh dan mewujudkan jaringan pengangkutan awam seluruh negara dengan cara menghubungkan semula bandaraya ‘lama’ seperti Ipoh, Seremban, Melaka dan Alor Star dengan perkhidmatan keretapi yang pantas dan boleh diharapkan.

  1. Sebagai tambahan kita juga akan menghubungkan Pantai Timur dan Pantai Barat dengan jaringan keretapi.

Menyokong Pemilikan Perumahan

32. Sektor pembinaan memiliki jaringan dalam dan luar melibatkan 150 sub-sektor dalam ekonomi – daripada pembinaan bangunan, pengeluaran material bangunan, hartanah, kredit dan kewangan, perkhidmatan perdagangan dan bahan binaan, pengubahsuaian, khidmat perundingan dan sebagainya.  Kami memperuntukkan tambahan sejumlah Rm1 billion untuk pembangunan perumahan, lebih daripada dua kali ganda yang ditawarkan kerajaan dalam belanjawan 2009.

33. Sebagai tambahan untuk menyokong pembangunan infrastruktur yang penting, Pakatan Rakyat akan menyediakan sejumlah peruntukan yang cukup untuk perbelanjaan projek perumahan bagi menjana pertumbuhan dan menekankan keperluan kritikal untuk perumahan terutamanya bagi Rakyat kelas pertengahan dan berpendapatan rendah.

34. Lebih banyak perumahan kos rendah dan sederhana akan dibina dengan penilaian semula harga siling untuk perumahan kos rendah dengan perhitungan kos material pembinaan semasa.

35.  Pakatan Rakyat akan menyediakan dana pinjaman mudah untuk pembinaan bertujuan memastikan kontraktor kecil dan sederhana tidak menghadapi masalah aliran tunai yang terhad.

36. Pakatan Rakyat juga akan memastikan pembekalan berterusan material pembinaan dengan mengubah halangan perdagangan untuk meningkatkan pembekalan dan pengeluaran dalam negara. Ini termasuk memudahkan permit import, kuota dan lesen serta birokrasi untuk membantu perkhidmatan dan perdagangan. Ini akan membantu pengurangan kos material bangunan, yang bukan saja meningkatkan kos dalam sector perumahan tetapi juga melengahkan perlaksanaan projek awam dan swasta.

37.  Inflasi yang tinggi dan peningkatan pengangguran meletakkan tekanan kepada pemilik perumahan dan kemungkinan peningkatan pajakan tidak berbayar. Ini adalah sesuatu yang buruk kepada Rakyat dan memberi kesan yang signifikan kepada ekonomi. Pada tahun 2009 kami akan mengagihkan dana untuk menolong mereka yang layak dan berkemampuan meminjam serta kumpulan kelas menengah untuk kekal membayar pinjaman dan mendorong pemberi pinjaman menilai semula pajakan agar lebih mampu dibayar.

SUMBER PENDAPATAN BARU DAN MASA DEPAN

  1. Pakatan Rakyat akan melaksanakan reformasi dasar-dasar untuk menjana sumber pendapatan baru untuk mencegah kebergantungan melampau terhadap pendapatan daripada sumber asli. Sebagai contoh, hari ini kira-kira 70,000 AP dikeluarkan untuk kenderaan import. Kami mencadangkan AP ini dilelong kepada pembida tertinggi yang mahu mengimport kereta, dan proses ini dilaksanakan setiap bulan. Berdasarkan kepada anggaran harga pasaran RM25,000 setiap AP, lelongan ini akan memberikan pendapatan tambahan sebanyak RM1.75 bilion kepada perbendaharaan negara.

  1. Pakatan Rakyat mencadangkan cukai karbon sebanyak RM25 bagi setiap tan karbon dioksida atau yang bersamaan, dilaksanakan menjelang 2010. Cukai 5% untuk penggalian mineral dan keluaran hasil hutan juga dicadangkan untuk menggalakkan pengurusan alam sekitar yang berhemah. Cukai hijau juga akan dapat menampung kemerosotan dalam cukai pendapatan dan korporat serta membaiki reputasi Malaysia di mata dunia sebagai negara yang gigih melaksanakan dasar mesra alam.

  1. Rundingan semula kontrak yang menggalakkan monopoli seperti dengan konsesi tol dan pengeluar tenaga bebas bukan sahaja dapat mengurangkan kos semua perkhidmatan untuk rakyat, tetapi juga penjimatan besar buat kerajaan. Penjimatan ini akan dapat digunakan bagi subsidi silang untuk projek berkepentingan awam seperti pembangunan sistem pengangkutan atau amalan pelaksanaan tenaga alternatif.

SARANAN UTAMA BELANJAWAN PAKATAN RAKYAT

  1. Pakatan Rakyat percaya dasar fiskal serta ekonomi negara ini mestilah berasaskan prinsip keadilan teragih dan cermat serta berusaha untuk memperbaiki keadaan rakyat Malaysia.

  1. Pakatan Rakyat sedar ekonomi global sedang bergolak, oleh itu perlunya langkah-langkah penstabilan dilaksanakan, juga merangsang permintaan domestik, agar pendapatan negara tidak terlalu bergantung kepada hasil petroleum, minyak sawit dan gas asli. Pakatan Rakyat juga bercadang untuk mengeratkan lagi hubungan dagangan di kalangan negara Asia lainnya, terutamanya dengan India, China dan Timur Tengah dan meneruskan usaha untuk menarik pelaburan asing.

  1. Melihat kepada kedudukan serta suasana ekonomi di luar yang tidak menentu, polisi seharusnya menumpukan untuk merekayasa semula strategi untuk memacu pertumbuhan negara samada untuk jangka masa pendek mahupun untuk jangka masa panjang, di samping memulihkan kembali sebarang kelemahan yang ada dalam ekonomi kita. Berikut adalah strategi dan langkah-langkah yang disarankan:

(i)       memastikan kestabilan pasaran;

(ii)      menyediakan jaring keselamatan sosial;

(iii)     memastikan harga domestik stabil;

(iv)     meningkatkan daya saing;

  1. Langkah yang diambil mestilah untuk memastikan polisi makro ekonomi yang dirangka akan menjamin  persekitaran yang kondusif buat meransang pelaburan dan permintaan, di samping mengekalkan stabiliti pasaran kewangan.

LANGKAH UNTUK MEMASTIKAN KESTABILAN PASARAN KEWANGAN.

  1. Pakatan Rakyat menyedari asas ekonomi Malaysia adalah kuat berbanding tahun 1997 dan cabaran 10 tahun lalu adalah berlainan jika dibandingkan dengan keadaan sekarang. Walau bagaimanapun kesan krisis kewangan global memerlukan tindakan yang berhemah buat kita mengemudi negara ini keluar dari kemelut sekarang dengan jayanya. Kami menyarankan beberapa tindakan yang berikut:

  1. Kerajaan sewajarnya menjamin pendeposit di bank-bank.

  1. Keutamaan akan ditumpukan  kepada kemudahan untuk meminjam dan institusi perbankan seharusnya bersama-sama dengan pelanggan mereka di saat yang sukar ini. Penjadualan semula pembayaran serta keanjalan di dalam membayar pinjaman akan membantu aliran tunai di sektor swasta.

  1. Mewujudkan satu bentuk koordinasi dengan negara-negara Asean serta pasaran kewangan global untuk memantau sebarang kejutan pasaran yang mampu mencetuskan pengaliran keluar modal ataupun perubahan mengejut kepada nilai matawang. Bank Negara Malaysia, Suruhanjaya Sekuriti dan Bursa Malaysia berkemampuan untuk melaksanakan sistem amaran awal bagi mengenal pasti corak negatif serta risiko yang mampu menggugat kestabilan dan keyakinan terhadap sistem kewangan.

  1. Meneliti perkembangan krisis subprima di Amerika Syarikat, institusi perbankan seharusnya mengukuhkan keupayaan penilaian kredit dan piawai kelayakan peminjam. Di antaranya, sentiasa menilai keupayaan pelanggan untuk membayar balik pinjaman serta memantau dengan dekat kualiti pinjaman yang diberi.

  1. Bank Negara Malaysia dan institusi perbankan lainnya seharusnya bekerjasama dengan lebih erat bagi memastikan pinjaman yang diberi secara berhemah. Ini boleh dicapai melalui program pendidikan serta kesedaran pelanggan, aliran maklumat yang lebih baik, perkhidmatan kewangan yang bermaklumat dan juga menyediakan perkhidmatan nasihat yang berasaskan perancangan kewangan terbaik.

  1. Bursa Malaysia, Suruhanjaya Sekuriti dan Pendaftar Syarikat mesti meningkatkan keupayaan pamantauan dan penguatkuasaan bagi menghalang sebarang pelanggaran undang-undang.

MENYEDIAKAN JARING KESELAMATAN SOSIAL

  1. Peruntukan kebajikan untuk warga yang mengalami masalah mendapatkan pekerjaan termasuklah golongan miskin di desa dan bandar dan mereka yang bergantung kepada kanak-kanak dan mereka yang kehilangan pekerjaan kerana proses pengurangan tenaga kerja.

  1. Pemotongan sementara untuk sumbangan pekerja kepada KWSP daripada 11% kepada 9% sebulan untuk tempoh satu tahun bagi meningkatkan pendapatan yang boleh dibelanjakan. Langkah ini akan menyuntik hampir RM2 bilion ke dalam ekonomi untuk perbelanjaan dalam negara.

  1. Pemotongan atau penghapusan caj bagi perkhidmatan dalam pendidikan dan perkhidmatan kesihatan kerajaan.

  1. Pemotongan atau penghapusan bayaran lessen terutamanya untuk pasar dan pasar malam, dan apa sahaja yang dapat meringankan beban rakyat yang sedang mencari pekerjaan.

Meningkatkan Perbelanjaan Dalam Negara dengan Mengawal Inflasi

  1. Kami akan mengurus tekanan inflasi dan mengawal anggaran inflasi melalui

i)          mengalihkan halangan perdagangan untuk meningkatkan penawaran dan pengeluaran dalam negara.

ii)         mengukuhkan rangkaian agihan dan penawaran.

iii)        mengurangkan cukai dan duti import bagi input yang digunakan untuk pengeluaran makanan, barangan akhir dan pertanian.

iv)        mengambil tindakan tegas terhadap peniaga dan pengilang yang memanipulasi pasaran untuk memastikan keadilan dalam penetapan harga.

  1. Penurunan segera harga petrol berdasarkan rancangan yang digariskan, menyelamatkan dana daripada ketirisan dan bayaran besar kepada IPP untuk mengekalkan kapasiti simpanan tinggi yang tidak diperlukan.

  1. Kerajaan mesti mengamalkan mekanisme penetapan harga yang memberi lebih tindak balas kepada turun naik harga minyak di pasaran sambil memastikan mereka yang miskin dan terpinggir tidak mendapat kesan yang menyiksakan dari kenaikan mendadak harga petroleum.

  1. Berkenaan kawalan harga, wujud keperluan untuk menyemak mekanisme kawalan harga dalam konteks peningkatan kelancaran pasaran serta pengurangan gangguan harga.

Dasar Persaingan Kebangsaan

  1. Kami mencadangkan Dasar Persaingan Kebangsaan dan akan mengambil langkah untuk mengurangkan ketidakadilan kuasa pasaran yang dikendalikan oleh monopoli ciptaan kerajaan.

  1. Pakatan Rakyat percaya dengan pengurangan cukai dan levi lain terhadap sektor perniagaan, dalam persekitaran yang sesuai, akan meningkatkan pelaburan dan mengakibatkan peningkatan kerja. Sebagai tambahan, cadangan Pakatan Rakyat akan berfokus kepada sektor penting untuk memaksimumkan kesan pengecualian cukai terhadap industri strategik bagi pertumbuhan dan pembangunan Malaysia.

i)         Pengecualian cukai untuk mereka yang membuat eksport pada tahap tertentu.

ii)        Pengecualian cukai bagi kecekapan guna tenaga dan operasi intensif pekera bagi membantu menyediakan insentif untuk syarikat beralih kepada kaedah pengeluaran yang lebih cekap menggunakan tenaga serta memastikan rakyat tidak kehilangan pekerjaan.

  1. Syarikat kecil dan sederhana merupakan 99% dari keseluruhan jumlah syarikat di negara ini. Walau bagaimanapun sumbangan syarikat-syarikat ini melalui cukai kepada negara telah mulai berkurangan akibat negara terlalu bergantung kepada hasil minyak dan gas.

  1. Kenaikan kos barangan mentah serta kenaikan harga minyak dan elektrik mengakibatkan banyak syarikat kecil dan sederhana mengalami kesukaran untuk terus bersaing.

  1. Untuk menjana semula sektor industri kecil dan sederhana serta membantu syarikat-syarikat di sektor tersebut, yang mana rakan-rakan mereka di negara-negara lain menikmati kelebihan cukai. Oleh itu Pakatan Rakyat mencadangkan kadar cukai diturunkan dari 20% kepada 18%.

  1. Tambahan lagi pengecualian cukai hanya dikenakan pada Rm 200 000 dan dicukai sebanyak 12%. Ini bermakna syarikat kecil dan sederhana yang mempunyai pendapatan RM 900 000 akan dikenakan cukai sebanyak 18%. Langkah ini akan memastikan syarikat kecil dan sederhana akan lebih berdaya saing dan menarik banyak syarikat kecil dan sederhana untuk memulakan perniagaan di Malaysia serta mencipta peluang pekerjaan.

  1. Apabila kerajaan melancarkan Koridor Raya Multimedia 10 tahun lalu, ia berjanji untuk menyokong syarikat yang berstatus MSC. Walau bagaimanapun, kerajaan sebagai pelanggan terbesar dalam perkhidmatan teknologi maklumat, langsung tidak memberi perhatian kepada syarikat-syarikat berstatus MSC.

  1. Oleh itu amat penting dalam belanjawan ini, syarikat berstatus MSC diberi keutamaan mendapat tender kerajaan yang berkaitan dengan teknologi maklumat.

TADBIR URUS, KETELUSAN DAN AKAUNTABILITI

  1. Pakatan Rakyat komited dengan prinsip tadbir urus yang baik, ketelusan dan pertanggungjawaban. Kami percaya kerajaan yang wewenang dalam pentadbiran dan membazir dalam mengurus kewangan harus bertanggungjawab. Lebih buruk lagi adalah korupsi dan kronisme yang mengambil tempat dalam pentadbiran BN yang merugikan RM10billion duit rakyat setahun. Untuk mengakhiri amalan ini adalah dengan mengamalkan pentadbiran yang telus. Adalah amat penting belanjawan tahunan yang melebihi Rm150billion diikuti dengan beberapa langkah bagi memastikan dana awam diuruskan dengan baik dan bertanggungjawab.

Mengawal perbelanjaan kerajaan dalam projek mega:

  1. Dari segi sejarah, kerajaan BN mempunyai rekod buruk dalam pembaziran dan projek mega yang tidak mungkin dapat diwajarkan sekiranya dinilai dengan teliti. Selain daripada projek jambatan bengkok RM1.13 bilion yang dibatalkan, projek kabel bawah laut bernilai RM9 bilion dan kini ada pula cadangan untuk projek internet jalur lebar sebanyak RM15.2 bilion untuk menghubungkan 2.2 juta apa yang dipanggil premis berimpak ekonomi tinggi.

  1. Untuk mengelakkan kemungkinan projek mega yang tidak bertanggung jawab ini daripada membebankan orang ramai, Pakatan Rakyat mencadangkan, untuk tahun belanjawan ini dan baki tempoh Rancangan Malaysia Kesembilan, agar kesemua projek mega yang kosnya melebihi RM1 bilion dinilai semula dari segi kebaikan sosio-ekonomi, kemampuan dan impak yang diingini untu pembangunan nasional dan peluang pekerjaan. Penilaian ini patut dilaksanakan dengan telus dengan penglibatan badan-badan profesional yang bebas dan mempunyai kredibiliti.

  1. Kepatuhan kepada standard penjimatan yang tinggi oleh Pakatan Rakyat – bermula dengan projek mega dan kemudian untuk semua projek baru akan menghalang dana awam daripaa dibazirkan atau dirampas oleh kroni politik BN. Ia juga akan membolehkan penjimatan untuk dialirkan kepada program-program yang membawa pulangan lebih besar kepada orang awam.

Mereformasi sistem tender awam

  1. Semua kontrak kerajaan mesti ditender secara terbuka, berdaya saing dan telus sama dengan dasar-dasar yang terbukti berkesan dan telah menyelamatkan jutaan wang pembayar cukai. Untuk mencapai matlamat ini langkah-langkah tersebut perlu dilaksanakan:

a)          Kesemua syarikat yang layak akan diberikan peluang sama rata untuk mendapat kontrak dan projek bekalan kepada kerajaan.

b)            Untuk mencegah gangguan kepada sistem semasa, dasar ini akan dilaksanakan secara berperingkat-peringkat, bermula dengan projek atau kontrak bekalan bersaiz lebih RM10 juta pada tahun 2009.

c)                  Selaras dengan cabaran yang dibawa oleh globalisasi dan bagi memenuhi komitmen antarabangsa kita kepada pasaran bebas, kesemua tender mestilah dibuat dengan berdaya saing, terbuka dan telus menjelang 2015.

  1. Kami mengunjurkan penjimatan kira-kira 10% dengan sistem tender baru dan penjimatan mutlak melebihi RM5 bilion setahun dan turut membawa kepada pembaikan kualiti dengan magnitud yang lebih besar.

Merundingkan semula kontrak yang tidak adil

  1. Dasar kerajaan Barisan Nasional yang menjamin konsesi tol lebuhraya dan pengeluar tenaga bebas (IPP) keuntungan besar dengan kontrak yang sangat tidak adil adalah kes paling jelas kegagalan kerajaan hari ini untuk melindungi kepentingan awam dengan tujuan memperkayakan sebahagian kecil rakyat Malaysia yang paling kaya dan pemilik perniagaan.

  1. Kesan dasar-dasar ini semakin dirasai hari ini dengan peningkatan kadar tol dan harga tenaga. Oleh itu adalah penting untuk kerajaan merundingkan semula kontrak-kontrak ini untuk melindungi kepentingan awam.

  1. Tidaklah mustahil untuk merundingkan semula jumlah subsidi dan keperluan kapasiti simpanan dan pada masa yang sama memastikan syarikat-syarikat ini dapat secara berterusan memperoleh untung yang munasabah dalam pasaran yang lebih berdaya saing.

KESIMPULAN

Belanjawan 2009 yang dibentang oleh kerajaan BN menzahirkan kelangsungan kegagalan polisi yang menyebabkan ketidakcekapan berpanjangan dan pembaziran dana awam berleluasa. Berbillion ringgit telah diperuntukkan untuk belanjawan 2009 tanpa alasan yang kukuh. Tanpa ketelusan dan pertanggungjawaban, berkemungkinan besar berbillion ringgit akan tiris dan mengalir ke dalam poket para kroni atau hilang akibat pembaziran dan ketidakcekapan.

LAMPIRAN

Jadual A1. Kedudukan Kewangan Kerajaan Pusat 2005 – 2009

RM million (Juta)

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009PR

2009BN

Revenue

106,304

123,546

139,885

161,558

158,349

176,221

Operating expenditure

97,744

107,694

123,084

150,953

130,345

154,170

Current balance

8,560

15,852

16,801

10,605

28,407

22,051

Gross development expenditure

30,534

35,807

40,564

46,258

51,736

51,730

Less: Loan recoveries

3,250

846

3,105

1,191

1,229

1,229

Net development expenditure

27,284

34,961

37,459

45,067

50,507

50,501

Overall balance

-18,724

-19,109

-20,658

-34,462

-22,100

-28,450

% of GDP

-3.6%

-3.3%

-3.2%

-4.8%

-3.0%

-3.6%

Jadual B1 Perbelanjaan Kerajaan Persekutuan 2005-2009

RM million (Juta)

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009PR

2009BN

Diff

Tax revenue

Perbelanjaan cukai

72,050

87,863

95,168

107,737

107,849

124,380

-13%

Direct tax

Cukai langsung

48,703

62,637

69,396

77,579

77,649

92,127

-16%

of which:

iaitu

Companies

Syarikat-syarikat

26,381

26,477

32,149

33,325

33,000

35,780

-8%

PITA

PITA

14,566

20,674

20,453

24,511

24,300

35,826

-32%

Individuals

Persendirian

8,649

10,196

11,661

14,593

15,399

15,399

0%

Cooperatives

Koperasi

1,193

1,428

1,395

1,417

1,450

1,480

-2%

Others

Lain-lain

2,754

2,798

3,738

3,733

3,500

3,642

-4%

Indirect tax

Cukai tidak langsung

23,347

25,226

25,772

30,158

30,200

32,253

-6%

of which:

iaitu

Export duties

Duti eksport

2,086

2,361

2,322

2,977

3,000

3,032

-1%

Import duties

Duti import

3,385

2,678

2,424

2,411

2,100

2,211

-5%

Excise duties

Duit Eksais

6,828

8,798

8,991

10,369

9,800

11,038

-11%

Sales tax

Cukai jualan

6,816

6,281

6,642

7,580

7,800

8,059

-3%

Service tax

Cukai perkhidmatan

2,582

2,685

3,013

3,415

3,500

3,708

-6%

Lain-Lain

1,968

2,225

2,380

3,406

4,000

4,205

-5%

Non-tax revenue

Perbelanjaan bukan cukai

27,347

32,762

44,717

53,821

50,500

51,841

-3%

Total revenue

Jumlah Perbelanjaan

99,397

120,625

139,885

161,558

158,349

176,221

-10%

Jadual C3 Perbelanjaan Operasi Kerajaan Persekutuan 2005-2009

RM million (Juta)

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009PR

2009BN

Diff

Emolument

Emolumen/Gaji

25,587

28,522

32,587

36,214

36,500

37,985

-4%

Debt service charges

Hutang dari caj perhidmatan

11,604

12,495

12,911

13,101

13,473

13,473

0%

Grants to state governments

Geran untuk kerajaan-kerajaan negeri

2,614

2,851

3,904

4,402

4,903

4,903

-8%

Pensions and gratuities

Pencen dan penghargaan

6,809

7,008

8,251

8,412

7,279

7,279

0%

Supplies and services

Perbekalan dan perkhidmatan

17,984

20,923

23,622

25,900

18,000

26,488

-32%

Subsidies

Subsidi

13,387

10,112

10,481

34,103

29,000

33,799

-14%

Assets Acquisition

Perolehan Aset

1,603

1,949

2,532

2,194

1,800

2,361

-24%

Grants to statutory bodies

Geran untuk badan berkanun

8,289

9,195

10,707

13,064

8,800

13,805

-36%

Refunds and write-off

Pulangan perbelanjaan dan

288

287

1,062

966

890

890

0%

Others

Lain-lain

9,579

14,352

17,027

12,598

9,700

13,187

-26%

Total Jumlah

91,298

105,374

116,986

154,170

130,345

154,170

-16%

Jadual D4 Perbelanjaan Pembangunan Kerajaan Persekutuan berasasaskan Sektor 2005-2009

RM Million (juta)

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009PR

2009BN

Diff

Economic services

Perkhidmatan ekonomi iaitu

11,851

16,283

20,116

20,718

25,256

27,746

-9%

of which:

Agriculture and rural development

Pertanian dan pembangunan luar bandar

2,881

3,681

3,842

4,414

3,500

3,522

-1%

Trade and industry

Industri dan Perdagangan

1,201

3,791

4,904

4,450

5,000

4,303

16%

Transport

Pengangkutan

6,630

6,198

8,500

7,813

12,000

7,605

58%

Public Utilities

Kemudahan Awam

1,481

2,244

2,358

3,131

3,000

3,216

-7%

Communications

Perhubungan/Komunikasi

105

8

105

117

856

556

54%

Other

Lain-Lain

8

12

407

793

900

8,544

-89%

Social services / Servis social

10,260

10,194

12,893

15,594

20,880

17,794

17%

of which / iaitu:

Education and training

Pendidikan dan latihan

4,316

5,175

6,271

8,483

11,800

10,087

17%

Health

Kesihatan

2,352

1,297

1,496

2,247

3,080

2,308

33%

Housing

Perumahan

1,593

1,895

2,947

2,011

3,000

1,400

114%

Lain-Lain

1,412

1,531

2,178

2,853

3,000

3,999

-25%

Security

Keselamatan

4,133

5,781

5,702

7,032

3,500

4,073

-14%

General Administration

Pentadbiran Awam

2,620

3,556

1,853

2,914

2,100

2,117

-1%

Total /Jumlah

28,864

35,814

40,564

46,258

51,736

51,730

0%

ADDRESSING UNCERTAINTIES AND

RESTORING CONFIDENCE IN THE ECONOMY

RECOMMENDATIONS BY PAKATAN RAKYAT

FOR THE 2009 MALAYSIA BUDGET

23 OCTOBER 2008

TOC \o “1-3” \h \z \u INTRODUCTION.. PAGEREF _Toc212505289 \h 3

GLOBAL ECONOMIC SCENARIO, CHALLENGES FACED BY MALAYSIA.. PAGEREF _Toc212505290 \h 4

Government’s initial response to market crisis is incoherent and flawed.. PAGEREF _Toc212505291 \h 5

PAKATAN’S RAKYAT’S PROPOSED BUDGET ALLOCATION.. PAGEREF _Toc212505292 \h 6

Education – Investments in human capital. PAGEREF _Toc212505293 \h 7

Strategic public transportation initiatives. PAGEREF _Toc212505294 \h 7

Supporting home ownership. PAGEREF _Toc212505295 \h 8

New and future sources of revenue. PAGEREF _Toc212505296 \h 9

PAKATAN RAKYAT’S KEY BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS. PAGEREF _Toc212505297 \h 10

Measures to ensure stability of financial markets. PAGEREF _Toc212505298 \h 10

Provide for a  social safety net. PAGEREF _Toc212505299 \h 11

Increase domestic consumption by bringing inflation under control. PAGEREF _Toc212505300 \h 11

National competitiveness policy. PAGEREF _Toc212505301 \h 12

GOVERNANCE, TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY.. PAGEREF _Toc212505302 \h 14

Curbing government expenditure on mega-projects. PAGEREF _Toc212505303 \h 14

Reforming the public-tender system.. PAGEREF _Toc212505304 \h 14

Renegotiating unfair contracts. PAGEREF _Toc212505305 \h 15

CONCLUSION.. PAGEREF _Toc212505306 \h 16

Appendices. PAGEREF _Toc212505307 \h 17

Table A1. Federal Government Financial Position 2005 – 2009. PAGEREF _Toc212505308 \h 17

Table B1. Federal Government Revenue 2005 – 2009. PAGEREF _Toc212505309 \h 18

Table C3. Federal Government Operating Expenditure by Object 2005 – 2008.. PAGEREF _Toc212505310 \h 19

Table D4. Federal Government Development Expenditure by Sector 2005 – 2009. PAGEREF _Toc212505311 \h 20

INTRODUCTION

Pakatan Rakyat humbly presents these recommendations to the lawmakers in the Malaysian Parliament as they continue to debate the 2009 Budget presented by the government on 29 August of this year.  Our recommendations are made in light of the global economic and financial crisis, the sharp decline in commodities markets and the anticipated impact of these and other factors on the Malaysian economy.

We believe that the 2009 Budget as presented is deeply flawed, not only in its assumptions but also in its prescriptions for navigating the country through the stormy waters of prolonged global economic recession expected in 2008 and 2009.  The nation’s leaders seem to be on auto-pilot, unaware of the challenges which have already risen in the form of runaway inflation, rising unemployment and declining foreign investment.  More troubling is their prolonged state of denial over the grim economic forecasts.  The entire industrialized world, upon which the Malaysian economy relies heavily, is bracing for the worst recession in over a half century and our leaders have not offered a single reassuring statement or policy to indicate that they understand the gravity of the situation.

There is a pressing need for a meaningful exchange of ideas by lawmakers on both sides of the political divide to formulate a more credible budget and a more responsible plan to allocate and spend the money that has been entrusted upon the government by its rightful stewards, the people of Malaysia.

The ruling party has thus far proven itself incapable of engaging in such a dialogue.  The views presented by the Pakatan Rakyat in the Parliament have yet to be adequately debated by elected lawmakers because of the conspicuous absence of the majority of BN MPs and the senior Ministers from the Dewan Rakyat.  Their silence is deafening. It reflects an arrogance of power and disdain for the plight of the ordinary Malaysian citizen whose life and livelihood will be directly impacted by the precarious economic situation.

Pakatan Rakyat believes in the democratic process and we will uphold our promise to the people of Malaysia.  We represent their interests and will fight relentlessly against the corruption and cronyism which has contributed in large part to the nation’s precarious fiscal and economic condition. We will do our part to hold the government to account so that the taxpayer’s contributions as well as the nation’s abundant natural resource wealth are put to good use for the benefit of the people and the future of Malaysia.

GLOBAL ECONOMIC SCENARIO, CHALLENGES FACED BY MALAYSIA

  1. The global economy is under threat of a sustained and prolonged recession.  There are signs of systemic failure both in the financial markets as well as in the economy in general with demand slackening for raw materials and finished goods around the world. Experts believe that while financial markets may rebound in the near term, the impact on the overall economy will be prolonged.

  1. In a globaslised economy it is inevitable that the impact of this crisis will be felt globally and in an export oriented economy such as Malaysia’s the nation must make preparations and brace for the challenges ahead.

  1. The latest analysis by the Malaysian Institute for Economic Research (MIER) predicts growth will slow to 3.4% in 2009 and the probability of a real recession by next year must be taken seriously. This confirms earlier predictions offered by regional and international economic experts that the government’s forecast of 5.4% growth was overly optimistic.[1]

  1. Throughout the economic slowdown which has unfolded in September and October the current government has consistently denied that Malaysia will be affected even though the country is enduring the highest inflation rates in over two decades due to the government’s mishandling of the petroleum subsidy.  Also worrying is the increasing trend in unemployment and the precipitous decline in the KLCI, which has recently dropped below the 900 level.

  1. The statements by the government reflect a prolonged state of denial and will create a false sense of security among people and institutions which could take steps now to prepare for challenging times ahead. This “see-nothing, do-nothing” strategy may ultimately backfire, leaving the nation and the vast majority of her people in dire circumstances.

  1. The 2009 Budget proposed by the government is unrealistic in its assumptions of total revenues since commodity prices have dropped dramatically since the summer. The level of deficit spending will likely be higher although we believe the areas targeted for expenditure will not adequately stimulate the economy during the anticipated recession.

  1. Furthermore experts have criticised this is a budget that whilst not penalizing business, it is going to do practically nothing to encourage business.  The plan has no substantive initiatives to encourage business big or small, and no compelling proposals to improve Malaysia’s competitiveness in the context of the global economic slowdown.

Government’s initial response to market crisis is incoherent and flawed

  1. Since the market convulsions began in September the Malaysian government has reiterated its view that the country would not be adversely impacted.  Senior ministers have on multiple occasions said that Malaysia’s strong fundamentals will ensure our ability to “weather the storm”.  In this respect Malaysia is the only country in the world that believes it is immune to the impact of the financial meltdown.  Only recently did the new Finance Minister accept the fact that there would be some spill-over effect of a global recession on Malaysia, and has indicated a downward revision of already optimistic GDP forecasts is imminent.  Two days ago he repeated the statement that Malaysia’s fundamentals are strong and there is no chance of a recession, even though Malaysia’s largest trading partners have admitted recession is imminent.

  1. The Finance Minister’s lack of appreciation for the gravity of the situation is reflected in the government’s lackluster initiative in revising the 2009 Budget to reflect new market realities. Particularly worrying is his continued belief that the massive proposed increase in government expenditure is sustainable given the anticipated decline in revenue.

  1. The arbitrary and haphazard policies that have thus far been announced to prepare Malaysia for the impact of a global recession further reflect a failure to grasp the gravity of the challenges the Malaysian people will face in 2009.

  1. The Finance Minister’s proposed RM5bn injection of funds into Valuecap Sdn. Bhd. serves no logical purpose other than to prop-up some companies in the stock market, resembling the same pattern of abuse of power and misallocation of public funds which took place in the 1997 bailout scheme.  An injection of 1% of equity into the KLSE will have virtually no impact on the overall health of the stockmarket.  The appropriation of EPF funds into an opaque, privately held investment vehicle appears to do little more than channel the hard-earned retirement savings of Malaysian people towards a few companies and cronies. Thus far no assurances have been given that the EPF loan will be guaranteed by the Ministry of Finance and that the rate of return will at least equal the EPF dividend rate of 5.8%.

  1. Other pronouncements by the Finance Minister to improve the investment climate are vague at best.  Unless substantial measures are taken to assuage foreign investors concerns regarding investing in Malaysia such as foreign equity ownership, enforcement of contracts, judicial independence and the professionalism of the criminal justice system,  a few haphazard measures are unlikely to abate the rapid withdrawal of foreign investment from Malaysia, which has already reached RM125bn in 2008.

PAKATAN’S RAKYAT’S PROPOSED BUDGET ALLOCATION

  1. For 2009 Pakatan Rakyat anticipates a decrease in Government revenue by 11%  to approximately RM157bn as against BN’s projection of RM176bn. Lower revenues are expected due to the drop in commodity prices as well as a decline in GDP.

  1. In estimating 2009 revenues we have taken the following assumptions on key commodity prices:

    1. Crude oil (tapis blend)                    USD80/barrel
    2. Crude palm oil                                 RM1,700/ton

  1. To ensure fiscal responsibility we advise a 15.5% reduction in government operational expenditure to RM130bn, as opposed to the BN proposed amount of RM154bn.  The 20% increase in government expenditure as proposed by BN in 2009 is neither sustainable given the expected decrease in revenue nor is it a prudent allocation given the challenging economic scenario the nation faces. Such a sudden and massive increase in the government’s operating budget is a telltale sign of wastage and inefficiency.  In reducing operating expenditure Pakatan Rakyat will make no reduction in government salaries. We also believe that a substantial savings in the order of RM10bn is feasible simply by reducing corruption and mandating open-tenders for government procurements.

  1. Malaysia has posted a budget deficit for 11 consecutive years under Barisan Nasional rule. This trend will continue in 2009 in order to sustain economic activity during this period of slowdown. However,  Pakatan Rakyat believes that the budget has to be balanced in the long run; that is why we should be running surpluses in good times, while deficits only in weaker years.  We estimate the budget deficit to be 3.0% based on our revised calculation of revenue and allocation for expenditure.

  1. It should be noted that under the BN proposed 2009 Budget and given the anticipated loss in commodity revenue, the government’s projection of 3.6% deficit would be virtually impossible to attain.  Pakatan Rakyat’s conservative estimates would achieve a lower deficit while still increasing development allocation.
  2. Under federal government operating expenditure, we will reduce the allocation for Supplies and Services from RM26.5 billion to RM18 billion through open tenders, repriortization of expenditure and elimination of wastages. This reduction is consistent with 2005-level allocation which proves that it’s a viable target.

  1. We have selected education, public transportation, health and housing as sectors which will benefit from substantial increases in development expenditure as we believe they will contribute quickly and with more multiplier effects towards strengthening the economy in 2009 and beyond.  We have also substantially reduced the allocation for defense and channelled additional funds towards fighting crime and promoting public safety.

  1. In implementing the 2009 Budget Pakatan Rakyat believes steps must be taken to quicken the disbursement of government funds as well as to ensure timely payments to the contractors to ease their cash-flow problem. The shortening of turnaround time would speed up the circulation of money and generally enhance the effectiveness of government expenditure in supporting overall economic activity, especially in case of recession.

Education – Investments in human capital

  1. We propose a substantial increase in the allocation towards education from RM8.4bn in 2008 to RM11.8bn in 2009. This is almost RM2bn more than the proposed increase by BN for its 2009 Budget.

22.  Pakatan Rakyat will allocate a portion of the Education budget to ensure that all primary schools are equipped with the minimum basic access to electricity and clean water.  As of 2006, 10.1% or 767, as well as 1.4% or 28 of our primary and secondary schools respectively are without consistent daily supply of electricity.  20.0% or 1,517 as well as 68 or 3.4% of our primary and secondary schools respectively are operating without public supply of treated water.  This allocation will benefit many such schools in the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.

23.  Teachers will also be given an average of 20% increase in pay-scale in order to attract more qualified and dedicated professionals to the teaching force.

24.  In addition, a special allocation of RM10 million will be allocated to address the ongoing challenge of illiteracy in Malaysian primary schools whereby some 115,000 or 7.7% of students are not able to read, write or count.

  1. Pakatan Rakyat will increase expenditure for Research and Development and for training.  These initiatives will be linked to the public university system to enhance research opportunities and build local capacity for innovation and entrepreneurship.  Greater investment in local R&D will also create jobs and produce qualified professionals with the skills necessary to serve the domestic and global market.

  1. Secondary and tertiary educational institutions will be improved by investments in more qualified instructors, enhanced research and development facilities, and funding allocations to encourage research in key growth areas for the economy including technology, agriculture and clean energy.

Strategic public transportation initiatives

  1. Pakatan Rakyat considers public transportation infrastructure a priority for investment and also for major improvements in the liveability of our cities and efficiency of the country’s key economic areas.  Pakatan Rakyat will improve the quality of the nation’s transportation infrastructure by optimizing the development expenditure for the sector and save on costs by ensuring open tenders for all major infrastructure projects.  We also propose special tax incentives for contractors utilising local products and labor.

  1. Traffic congestion has become a major problem in the highly congested urban centres – the Klang Valley, Penang Island and Johor Bahru.  A blueprint for a “Klang Valley Circle” rail network will also be developed to improve inter-suburban connectivity, by-passing the congested Kuala Lumpur city centre.  We also believe that the Penang Middle Outer Ring road is an important project to reduce traffic congestion and boost Penang’s economy and should be implemented.

  1. We propose a substantial increase in funding for intra-city busses in Kuala Lumpur, Johor, Penang, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching as an important step in quickly addressing the problem of poor/non-existent rail service and traffic congestion.

  1. PR also supports a policy to strengthen public transportation networks nationwide in a manner that revisits Malaysia’s “old” cities such as Ipoh, Seremban, Melaka, and Alor Star and links them with fast and reliable rail service.

  1. To ensure greater inclusiveness and promote greater ecnomic activities, Pakatan Rakyat will also allocate funds to improve transportation between  the East Coast with West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia via rail, roads and other modes of transport.

Supporting home ownership

  1. The construction sector has high intra- and inter-linkages involving about 150 subsectors in the economy – from the construction of buildings, production of building materials, real estate, finance and credit, trading services and warehousing, renovation, consultancy services and etc.  We are allocating an additional RM1bn to housing development to the sum of RM3 billion, which is more than double BN’s 2009 housing allocation of RM1.4 billion. This significant allocation demonstrates Pakatan Rakyat’s commitment to deliever roofs for every family, and our sincerity in wealth creation to eradicate poverty in Malaysia.

  1. In addition to supporting essential infrastructure projects Pakatan Rakyat would allocate substantial amount of development expenditure to housing projects to promote growth and also to address the critical need for housing especially among the middle and lower income groups.

  1. More low and medium-cost houses would be constructed with reviewed ceiling prices for low-cost housing to take into account the current cost of construction materials.

  1. Pakatan Rakyat would establish a soft loan construction fund, mainly to provide short-term funding to the small- and medium-sized contractors facing tight cash flow problem.

  1. Pakatan Rakyat will also seek to ensure the continuous supply of building materials by removing trade restrictions or constraints to increase domestic supply and production.  These include the liberalization of import permits, quotas and licenses as well as shorten the layering of administrative measures to facilitate trade and services. This would help mitigate the higher costs of building materials, which not only increase the cost of the housing sector but also delay in the implementation of both the public and private sector projects.

  1. High inflation and increasing unemployment are putting a tremendous strain on homeowners and increasing the likelihood of mortgage defaults. This is bad for people and can have ripple effects in the economy.  In 2009 we would establish a fund to assist qualified and credit-worthy low and middle-income homeowners to remain current on loan payments and would encourage lenders to rewrite mortgages to make payments more affordable.

Fighting Crime and Improving Security

  1. Pakatan Rakyat looks upon the current and deteriorating state of crime and security in the country with grave concern. We will allocate RM3.5 billion in development expenditure towards the country’s security. However, we will cut defence expenditure to purchase expensive military equipment such as submarines in the short term and redirect resources towards fighting crime.

  1. In addition to increasing the number of policemen and women as well as establishing the all important Independent Police Complaints and Monitoring Commission (IPCMC), Pakatan Rakyat seeks to implement on of the key initiatives proposed in the Royal Commission of Inquiry on the Royal Malaysian Police, namely reallocating approximately 30% of the police officers from administrative departments towards positions to crime-fighting departments. The vacancies in the administrative department will then be filled by civilians from the civil service sector. This will quickly increase the current shortage of officers patrolling the streets and improve the effectiveness of of the police force.

New and future sources of revenue

  1. Pakatan Rakyat will implement policy reforms in order to generate new sources of revenue to wean the government from its overreliance on income from natural resources.  For example, currently, some 70,000 vehicle import approved permits (APs) are issued annually for fully imported cars.  It is proposed that these APs are auctioned to the highest bidders who wish to import cars, with the exercise conducted monthly.  Based on an estimated market price of RM25,000 per AP, the auction will provide an additional RM1.75 billion to the Government’s coffers.

  1. Pakatan Rakyat proposes a “carbon tax” of RM25 per tonne of CO2 equivalent will be implemented by 2010.  A 5% minerals and forestry extraction severance tax shall also be imposed to promote better environmental management.  Green taxes will partially compensate for the decline in personal and corporate income taxes and improve Malaysia’s reputation around the world as being proactive in implementing environmentally friendly regulations. .

  1. The renegotiation of exploitative contracts by licensed monopolies such as the toll concessionaires and the independent power producers will not only result in a lower cost of services to all Malaysians but also substantial savings for the government.  These savings will then cross-subsidize public interest projects such as the development of the public transportation system or alternative energy implementation exercises.

PAKATAN RAKYAT’S KEY BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Pakatan Rakyat believes that the nation’s economic and fiscal strategy must reflect principles of prudence, distributive justice and be concerned with enhancing the well being of all people.

  1. Pakatan Rakyat recognizes ongoing volatility in global markets and the need for government to implement stabilizing measures, stimulate domestic demand, wean the country’s revenue sources off of oil, palm oil and natural gas, identify and enhance trading partners in Asia, particularly Indian, China and the Middle East, and continue to attract foreign investment.

  1. Given the heightened external economic uncertainties, the broad thrust of policy should be directed at re-engineering the growth strategies for the immediate and long term, while addressing the vulnerabilities in the economy. Hence, the broad measures and strategies are

(i)       ensuring the stability of financial markets;

(ii)       enhancing provisions for the social safety net;

(iii)      maintaining domestic price stability;

(iv)      enhancing national competitiveness,

  1. Policy measures need to ensure a balanced macroeconomic policy mix to create a conducive environment to stimulate investment and consumption, while maintaining stability in the financial markets.

Measures to ensure stability of financial markets

  1. Pakatan Rakyat recognizes that Malaysia’s fundamentals are much stronger then they were in 1997 and we do not face the same type of challenges that we did 10 years ago.  Notwithstanding, the impact of the global financial crisis does require some prudent actions on our part which we believe will help the country navigate through this period with greater success.  We propose the following steps be taken:

  1. The government should guarantee bank deposits in all banks.

  1. Immediate priority is to ensure the provision of credit facilities and the banking institutions should “hand-hold” their clients during this trying condition. Rescheduling of loan payments or flexibility of payments will help to smoothen companies’ cash flow.

  1. Ensure coordination within Asean and with global financial markets to monitor closely market shocks that may trigger capital flight or sudden swings in currency values.  Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM), the Securities Commission and Bursa Malaysia can implement early warning systems to identify negative trends and risks that could undermine stability and confidence in the financial system.

  1. In the light of the US subprime crisis, the banking institutions must strengthen credit assessment capacity and underwriting standards. These include the continued vigilance in assessing the customers’ repayment capacity and the close monitoring of the quality of loan throughout its lifespan.

  1. BNM, with closer cooperation of the banking institutions would continue to ensure credit extended to consumer is within prudent levels. This can be achieved through consumer education and awareness, better information flows and informed financial services as well as provide advisory services on sound financial planning.

  1. Bursa Malaysia, Securities Commission and Registrar of Companies must enhance their regulatory, monitoring, surveillance capabilities as well as enforcement activities to prevent breaches of regulations.

Provide for a  social safety net

  1. Welfare payments to an enlarged unemployable and non employable section of the population including the rural and urban poor and those with dependent children and those that have lost their employment because of retrenchment.
  2. A temporary reduction in employee contributions to the EPF from 11% to 9% for a period of one year to increase disposable incomes.  This would inject nearly RM2bn of disposable income into the economy for domestic spending.

  1. Reduction or removal of charges for services in the education and health governmental services.

  1. Reduction/removal of licenses payments especially for markets and pasar malam, in effect everything that will lighten the burden of the population carving to earn gainful employment.

Increase domestic consumption by bringing inflation under control

  1. We will manage the risk of inflationary pressures and contain inflationary expectations through

(i) the removal of trade restrictiveness or constraints to increase domestic supply and production. These include licensing, import permits and licenses;

(ii) strengthening the distribution and supply chains;

(iii) liberalising taxes and import duties on inputs used for the production of food, final goods and farming;

(iv) stepping up strict enforcement on the unscrupulous traders and manufacturers to ensure fair price practices.

  1. An immediate reduction in petrol prices based on the plan that has been outlined, drawing funds from leakages and the substantial payments made to IPPs to maintain unnecessarily high stand-by capacity.

  1. The government must implement a pricing mechanism which is more responsive to fluctuations in market prices for crude oil while ensuring that the poor and marginalized are not disproportionately impacted by sudden increases in the price of petroleum. As adequate programs are implemented to ensure the welfare of the poor and marginalized we would pursue a gradual implementation of market pricing so that the benefits of the allocation for fuel subsidy are channel more effectively to the most needy segments of society.

  1. On the price controls, there is a need to examine the price controls mechanism in the context of increasing market efficiency as well as minimizing price distortion.

National competitiveness policy

  1. We propose a national competition policy and will take steps to reduce the unfair market power held by state-created monopolies.  These industries are a massive drain on state funds and on consumer purchasing power.  Competition policy favours innovation and contributes to conditions conducive to new investment.

63. Small medium enterprises constitutes approximately 99% of all enterprises in the country.  However, their proportionate importance in terms of tax contributions to the Government has clearly declined with the increased dependence on oil and gas revenue.

64. With substantial increases in the cost of raw materials as well as steep increases in the price of fuel and electricity, many Malaysian SMEs are facing difficulties in maintaining competitiveness.

65.  To revitalise the SME sector, and to assist many SMEs whose counterparts in many countries in the region enjoy significant tax advantages, it is proposed that the tax rate for SMEs on their first RM500,000 chargeable income be reduced to 18% from the current 20%.

66. In addition, a new partial tax exemption threshold will be set at RM200,000 and taxed at 12%.  This means that a SME with a chargeable income of RM900,000 will be taxed at an effective rate of 18%, in line, particularly with its competitors across the causeway in Singapore.  This measure will help make Malaysian SMEs to be more competitive and at the same time attract more SMEs to set up business in Malaysia, creating more employment opportunities.

  1. Pakatan Rakyat believes that reduction in taxes and other levies to the business sector, in the proper environment, will result in increased investment and consequently job growth. Additionally, Pakatan Rakyat’s proposals are to focus on key sectors to maximize impact of tax-rebates on industries strategic to Malaysian growth and development.  After opportunities to lower the overall business tax burdens, Pakatan Rakyat would then offer more sector- and productivity-driven incentives to increase investment in critical areas and companies.   Examples of these policies are:

(i) Tax rebates for those who export to a certain level

(ii) Tax rebates to fuel efficient and labour intensive operations to help provide incentives for companies to migrate to more fuel efficient production methods and keeping people on the payroll

68. In addition, a new partial tax exemption threshold will be set at RM200,000 and taxed at 12%.  This means that a SME with a chargeable income of RM900,000 will be taxed at an effective rate of 18%, in line, particularly with its competitors across the causeway in Singapore.  This measure will help make Malaysian SMEs to be more competitive and at the same time attract more SMEs to set up business in Malaysia, creating more employment opportunities.

69. When the Government launched the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) project 10 years ago, it promised to make every effort to grow and support local MSC status companies. However, despite the rhetoric, the Government being the largest consumer of information technology services in Malaysia has not given preference to  these companies.

70.  It is therefore important that in this proposed budget, Malaysian MSC status companies be given specific preference in tendering for the Government IT-related contracts to help nurture these companies into successful regional players.

GOVERNANCE, TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY

  1. Pakatan Rakyat is committed principles of good governance, transparency and accountability.  We believe that a government which is careless in its administration and wasteful in its expenditures must be held to account.  Worse however is the rampant corruption and cronyism taking place in the BN administration which is costing the Malaysian people over USD10bn per year.  The only antidote to such practices is to implement a strict regime of disclosure and transparency in public expenditure.  It is imperative that an annual budget expenditure in excess of RM150bn include numerous measures to ensure the proper, legal and accountable collection and expenditure of public funds.

Curbing government expenditure on mega-projects

  1. Historically, the BN government has a notorious track record for wasteful and extravagant mega projects that cannot justify close scrutiny.  In addition to the aborted RM1.13 billion crooked scenic bridge, a RM9 billion undersea cable-tracking project has also been proposed and there is now a proposal for a RM15.2 billion high speed broadband (HSBB) project to wire up 2.2 million so-called high economic impact premises.

  1. To prevent the likelihood of financially irresponsible mega projects burdening the public, PR proposes for the current budget year and the remainder of the 9th Malaysia Plan period to undertake a rigorous priority review of all proposed mega projects costing RM1B upwards and to assess their socio-economic viability, affordability and intended impact on national development and employment.  This review will be conducted transparently and will include the use of independent and credible professional bodies and individuals.

  1. The strict adherence to higher standards of fiscal prudence by the Pakatan Rakyat government – beginning initially with mega projects and to be extended to all new projects – will prevent public funds from being wasted or hijacked by political cronies of the BN.  It will also enable the savings to be channeled towards programmes bringing higher returns for the public, including those aimed at helping the low and middle income earners.

Reforming the public-tender system

  1. All government contracts must be tendered in an open, competitive and transparent manner similar to policies that have proven to be effective and have saved millions of taxpayer Ringgitt. Towards this end, the following policies will be implemented:

1. All qualified companies shall be provided with equal opportunities to secure Government supply contracts and projects.

2.   To prevent destabilizing disruption to the current system, this policy shall be implemented on a gradual basis, commencing with projects or supply contracts sized above RM10 million for 2009.

3. In view of the challenges brought by globalization and to honour our international commitments to free trade, all tenders shall be made competitive, open and transparent by 2015.

  1. We project a conservative 10% savings can be achieved via the new tendering system and an absolute savings in excess of RM5 billion per annum as well as bring about quality improvements that are of a large magnitude.

Renegotiating unfair contracts

  1. The BN government’s policies of guaranteeing highway toll concessionaires as well as independent power producers (IPPs) extraordinary profits with grossly unequal contracts with little or no risks to the latter are the clearest cases of the current Government failing to protect public interest and enriching the small segment of wealthiest Malaysian business owners.

  1. The impact of these policies are increasingly felt today with rapidly rising toll rates and energy prices.  It is hence imperative that the Government renegotiate these contracts to protect the interest of the public.

  1. It is possible to renegotiate a reduction in the amount of subsidy and the stand-by capacity requirements while ensuring these companies are able to continue to earn a reasonable profit in a more competitive market.

CONCLUSION

  1. The 2009 Budget as presented by the BN government represents a continuation of the very same failed policies which have led to enormous inefficiency and wastage of public funds.  Billions of dollars have been added to the BN’s proposed expenditures without sufficient justification. It is very likely that without proper transparency and accountability billions will again be leaked into the pockets of cronies and lost to waste and inefficiency.

  1. Our recommendations, if implemented properly, will steer the country through the turbulence ahead and give back to the people more in terms of quality housing, healthcare and education which they righty deserve.

Appendices

Table A1. Federal Government Financial Position 2005 – 2009

Table B1. Federal Government Revenue 2005 – 2009

Jadual B1 Perbelanjaan Kerajaan Persekutuan 2005-2009

RM million (Juta)

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009PR

2009BN

Diff

Tax revenue

Perbelanjaan cukai

72,050

87,863

95,168

107,737

107,849

124,380

-13%

Direct tax

Cukai langsung

48,703

62,637

69,396

77,579

77,649

92,127

-16%

of which:

iaitu

Companies

Syarikat-syarikat

26,381

26,477

32,149

33,325

33,000

35,780

-8%

PITA

PITA

14,566

20,674

20,453

24,511

24,300

35,826

-32%

Individuals

Persendirian

8,649

10,196

11,661

14,593

15,399

15,399

0%

Cooperatives

Koperasi

1,193

1,428

1,395

1,417

1,450

1,480

-2%

Others

Lain-lain

2,754

2,798

3,738

3,733

3,500

3,642

-4%

Indirect tax

Cukai tidak langsung

23,347

25,226

25,772

30,158

30,200

32,253

-6%

of which:

iaitu

Export duties

Duti eksport

2,086

2,361

2,322

2,977

3,000

3,032

-1%

Import duties

Duti import

3,385

2,678

2,424

2,411

2,100

2,211

-5%

Excise duties

Duit Eksais

6,828

8,798

8,991

10,369

9,800

11,038

-11%

Sales tax

Cukai jualan

6,816

6,281

6,642

7,580

7,800

8,059

-3%

Service tax

Cukai perkhidmatan

2,582

2,685

3,013

3,415

3,500

3,708

-6%

Lain-Lain

1,968

2,225

2,380

3,406

4,000

4,205

-5%

Non-tax revenue

Perbelanjaan bukan cukai

27,347

32,762

44,717

53,821

50,500

51,841

-3%

Total revenue

Jumlah Perbelanjaan

99,397

120,625

139,885

161,558

158,349

176,221

-10%

Table C3. Federal Government Operating Expenditure by Object 2005 – 2008

Jadual C3 Perbelanjaan Operasi Kerajaan Persekutuan 2005-2009

RM million (Juta)

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009PR

2009BN

Diff

Emolument

Emolumen/Gaji

25,587

28,522

32,587

36,214

36,500

37,985

-4%

Debt service charges

Hutang dari caj perhidmatan

11,604

12,495

12,911

13,101

13,473

13,473

0%

Grants to state governments

Geran untuk kerajaan-kerajaan negeri

2,614

2,851

3,904

4,402

4,903

4,903

-8%

Pensions and gratuities

Pencen dan penghargaan

6,809

7,008

8,251

8,412

7,279

7,279

0%

Supplies and services

Perbekalan dan perkhidmatan

17,984

20,923

23,622

25,900

18,000

26,488

-32%

Subsidies

Subsidi

13,387

10,112

10,481

34,103

29,000

33,799

-14%

Assets Acquisition

Perolehan Aset

1,603

1,949

2,532

2,194

1,800

2,361

-24%

Grants to statutory bodies

Geran untuk badan berkanun

8,289

9,195

10,707

13,064

8,800

13,805

-36%

Refunds and write-off

Pulangan perbelanjaan dan

288

287

1,062

966

890

890

0%

Others

Lain-lain

9,579

14,352

17,027

12,598

9,700

13,187

-26%

Total Jumlah

91,298

105,374

116,986

154,170

130,345

154,170

-16%

Table D4. Federal Government Development Expenditure by Sector 2005 – 2009

Jadual D4 Perbelanjaan Pembangunan Kerajaan Persekutuan berasasaskan Sektor 2005-2009

RM Million (juta)

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009PR

2009BN

Diff

Economic services

Perkhidmatan ekonomi iaitu

11,851

16,283

20,116

20,718

25,256

27,746

-9%

of which:

Agriculture and rural development

Pertanian dan pembangunan luar bandar

2,881

3,681

3,842

4,414

3,500

3,522

-1%

Trade and industry

Industri dan Perdagangan

1,201

3,791

4,904

4,450

5,000

4,303

16%

Transport

Pengangkutan

6,630

6,198

8,500

7,813

12,000

7,605

58%

Public Utilities

Kemudahan Awam

1,481

2,244

2,358

3,131

3,000

3,216

-7%

Communications

Perhubungan/Komunikasi

105

8

105

117

856

556

54%

Other

Lain-Lain

8

12

407

793

900

8,544

-89%

Social services / Servis social

10,260

10,194

12,893

15,594

20,880

17,794

17%

of which / iaitu:

Education and training

Pendidikan dan latihan

4,316

5,175

6,271

8,483

11,800

10,087

17%

Health

Kesihatan

2,352

1,297

1,496

2,247

3,080

2,308

33%

Housing

Perumahan

1,593

1,895

2,947

2,011

3,000

1,400

114%

Lain-Lain

1,412

1,531

2,178

2,853

3,000

3,999

-25%

Security

Keselamatan

4,133

5,781

5,702

7,032

3,500

4,073

-14%

General Administration

Pentadbiran Awam

2,620

3,556

1,853

2,914

2,100

2,117

-1%

Total /Jumlah

28,864

35,814

40,564

46,258

51,736

51,730

0%



[1] See for example Economist Intelligence Unit Malaysia Country Reports for 2008,

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